Picard, Julian, Ivan Mastovsky, Michael A. Shapiro, Richard J. Temkin, Xueying Lu, Manoel Conde, D. Scott Doran, et al. “Generation of 565 MW of X -Band Power Using a Metamaterial Power Extractor for Structure-Based Wakefield Acceleration.” Physical Review Accelerators and Beams 25, no. 5 (May 16, 2022): 051301.
We report the generation of up to 565 MW, 2.7 ns (FWHM) pulses at 11.7 GHz from a metamaterial structure in test at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. The highest power was generated by a train of eight 65 MeV electron bunches spaced at 1.3 GHz with a total charge of 355 nC. The metamaterial structure consists of 100 copper unit cells each consisting of a wagon-wheel plate and a spacer plate with a total structure length of 0.2 m. The 565 MW pulse generates a wakefield with a peak on-axis gradient of 135 MV=m that could be used to accelerate a trailing main bunch. An estimated surface electric field of over 1 GV=m is generated on the metamaterial plates at the peak power level but no evidence of breakdown was observed during testing. Tests with single electron bunches and with trains of bunches of up to 100 nC produced output power levels in excellent agreement with simulations. At higher total bunch charge, offsets of the bunches from the axis resulted in beam interception and reduced output power. Simulations indicate that a perfectly aligned bunch train would generate more than 1 GW of power from the structure.