Rao, Yu, Chad T. Palumbo, Amrit Venkatesh, Megan Keener, Gabriele Stevanato, Anne-Sophie Chauvin, Georges Menzildjian, et al. “Design Principles for the Development of Gd(III) Polarizing Agents for Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 126, no. 27 (July 14, 2022): 11310–17.
Nuclear magnetic resonance suﬀers from an intrinsically low sensitivity, which can be overcome by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Gd(III) complexes are attractive exogenous polarizing agents for magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP due to their high chemical stability in contrast to nitroxide-based radicals. However, even the state-of-the-art Gd(III) complexes have so far provided relatively low DNP signal enhancements of ca. 36 in comparison to standard DNP biradicals, which show enhancements of over 200. Here, we report a series of new Gd(III) complexes for DNP and show that the observed DNP enhancements of the new and existing Gd(III) complexes are inversely proportional to the square of the zero-ﬁeld splitting (ZFS) parameter D, which is in turn determined by the ligand-type and the local coordination environment. The experimental DNP enhancements at 9.4 T and the ZFS parameters measured with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy agree with the above model, paving the way for the development of more eﬃcient Gd(III) polarizing agents.