Thurber, K.R., et al., Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field. J Magn Reson, 2018. 289: p. 122-131.
Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2x larger (13)C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29K and 76K. With MAS at 7kHz and 1.5W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30mW with 5kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T1e than the nitroxide (9.9ms and 1.3ms, respectively, at 50K and 1.2T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four (14)N nuclei, even at 9.4T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl radical would improve at lower magnetic field. Another conclusion from the calculations is that a verdazyl-nitroxide bi-radical would be expected to be slightly better for cross-effect DNP than the nitroxide-nitroxide bi-radicals commonly used now, assuming the same spin-spin coupling constants.