Robertson, Thomas B.R., and Ryan E. Mewis. “Perspective on the Hyperpolarisation Technique Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) in NMR Spectroscopy and MR Imaging.” In Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, 93:145–212. Elsevier, 2018.
Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a para-hydrogen-based technique that utilises a metal complex, normally centred on iridium, to propagate polarisation from para-hydrogen-derived hydride ligands to spin-½ nuclei located in a bound substrate. To date, substrates possessing 1H, 13C, 15N, 19F, 31P, 29Si, and 119Sn nuclei have been polarised by this technique. The exact positioning of these nuclei has a direct bearing on the enhancement observed and so substrates must be chosen or synthesised with care in order to maximise polarisation transfer, and hence the resulting enhancement. The chemical composition of the metal complex must be similarly appraised, as the exchange rate of substrates and para-hydrogen is implicated heavily in efficient polarisation transfer. The nature of the polarisation transfer, whether homogenous or heterogeneous, is another important facet to consider here, as is conducting SABRE in water-based systems. This review discusses the physical and theoretical aspects of the SABRE experiment, as well as the applications of the SABRE technique, namely, the detection of analytes at concentrations far below what would be possible with conventional NMR techniques and the collection of hyperpolarised magnetic resonance images. Advances relating to utilising singlet states for SABRE, pulse sequence design and the nature of the polarisation transfer mechanism are also discussed, and the implications for future SABRE-based discoveries highlighted.