Geiger, Michel-Andreas, Anil P. Jagtap, Monu Kaushik, Han Sun, Daniel Stöppler, Snorri T. Sigurdsson, Björn Corzilius, and Hartmut Oschkinat. “Efficiency of Water-Soluble Nitroxide Biradicals for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Rotating Solids at 9.4 T: BcTol-M and Cyolyl-TOTAPOL as New Polarizing Agents.” Chemistry – A European Journal 24, no. 51 (September 12, 2018): 13485–94.
Nitroxide biradicals are very efficient polarizing agents in magic angle spinning (MAS) cross effect (CE) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Many recently synthesized, new radicals show superior DNP-efficiency in organic solvents but suffer from insufficient solubility in water or glycerol/water for biological applications. We report DNP efficiencies for two new radicals, the water-soluble bcTol-M and cyolyl-TOTAPOL, and include a comparison with three known biradicals, TOTAPOL, bcTol, and AMUPol. They differ by linker groups, featuring either a 3-aminopropane-1,2-diol or a urea tether, or by the structure of the alkyl substituents that flank the nitroxide groups. For evaluating their performances, we measured both signal enhancements e and DNP-enhanced sensitivity k, and compared the results to electron spin relaxation data recorded at the same magnetic field strength (9.4 T). In our study, differences in DNP efficiency correlate with changes in the nuclear polarization dynamics rather than electron relaxation.
The ratios of their individual e and k differ by up to 20%, which is explained by starkly different nuclear polarization build-up rates. For the radicals compared here empirically, using proline standard solutions, the new radical bcTol-M performs best while being most soluble in water/glycerol mixtures.