Barskiy, Danila A., Stephan Knecht, Alexandra V. Yurkovskaya, and Konstantin L. Ivanov. “SABRE: Chemical Kinetics and Spin Dynamics of the Formation of Hyperpolarization.” Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 114–115 (October 2019): 33–70.
In this review, we present the physical principles of the SABRE (Signal Ampliﬁcation By Reversible Exchange) method. SABRE is a promising hyperpolarization technique that enhances NMR signals by transferring spin order from parahydrogen (an isomer of the H2 molecule that is in a singlet nuclear spin state) to a substrate that is to be polarized. Spin order transfer takes place in a transient organometallic complex which binds both parahydrogen and substrate molecules; after dissociation of the SABRE complex, free hyperpolarized substrate molecules are accumulated in solution. An advantage of this method is that the substrate is not modiﬁed chemically, and its polarization can be regenerated multiple times by bubbling fresh parahydrogen through the solution. Thus, SABRE requires two key ingredients: (i) polarization transfer and (ii) chemical exchange of both parahydrogen and substrate. While there are several excellent reviews on applications of SABRE, the background of the method is discussed less frequently. In this review we aim to explain in detail how SABRE hyperpolarization is formed, focusing on key aspects of both spin dynamics and chemical kinetics, as well as on the interplay between them. Hence, we ﬁrst cover the known spin order transfer methods applicable to SABRE — cross-relaxation, coherent spin mixing at avoided level crossings, and coherence transfer — and discuss their practical implementation for obtaining SABRE polarization in the most efﬁcient way. Second, we introduce and explain the principle of SABRE hyperpolarization techniques that operate at ultralow (<1 lT), at low (1lT to 0.1 T) and at high (>0.1 T) magnetic ﬁelds. Finally, chemical aspects of SABRE are discussed in detail, including chemical systems that are amenable to SABRE and the exchange processes that are required for polarization formation. A theoretical treatment of the spin dynamics and their interplay with chemical kinetics is also presented. This review outlines known aspects of SABRE and provides guidelines for the design of new SABRE experiments, with the goal of solving practical problems of enhancing weak NMR signals.