Category Archives: Hydration Dynamics

New limits of sensitivity of site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance for membrane proteins #DNPNMR

A nice overview how spinlabels can be used for structural biology studies. This includes pulsed EPR techniques such as PELDOR (DEER) and ODNP spectroscopy.

Bordignon, Enrica, and Stephanie Bleicken. “New Limits of Sensitivity of Site-Directed Spin Labeling Electron Paramagnetic Resonance for Membrane Proteins.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Biomembranes 1860, no. 4 (April 2018): 841–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.12.009

Site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance is a biophysical technique based on the specific introduction of spin labels to one or more sites in diamagnetic proteins, which allows monitoring dynamics and water accessibility of the spin-labeled side chains, as well as nanometer distances between two (or more) labels. Key advantages of this technique to study membrane proteins are addressed, with focus on the recent developments which will expand the range of applicability. Comparison with other biophysical methods is provided to highlight the strength of EPR as complementary tool for structural biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain.

Slow Molecular Motions in Ionic Liquids Probed by Cross-Relaxation of Nuclear Spins During Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization #DNPNMR

Banerjee, Abhishek, Arnab Dey, and Narayanan Chandrakumar. “Slow Molecular Motions in Ionic Liquids Probed by Cross-Relaxation of Nuclear Spins During Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55, no. 47 (November 14, 2016): 14756–61.

https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201607308

Solution-state Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) at moderate fields, performed by saturating the electron spin resonance (ESR) of a free radical added to the sample of interest, is well known to lead to significant NMR signal enhancements in the steady state, owing to electron–nuclear cross-relaxation. Here it is shown that under conditions which limit radical access to the molecules of interest, the time course of establishment of ODNP can provide a unique window into internuclear cross-relaxation, and reflects relatively slow molecular motions. This behavior, modeled mathematically by a three-spin version of the Solomon equations (one unpaired electron and two nuclear spins), is demonstrated experimentally on the 19F/1H system in ionic liquids. Bulky radicals in these viscous environments turn out to be just the right setting to exploit these effects. Compared to standard nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) work, the present experiment offers significant improvement in dynamic range and sensitivity, retains usable chemical shift information, and reports on molecular motions in the sub-megahertz (MHz) to tens of MHz range—motions which are not accessed at high fields.

Water Dynamics from the Surface to the Interior of a Supramolecular Nanostructure #DNPNMR #ODNP

Ortony, Julia H., Baofu Qiao, Christina J. Newcomb, Timothy J. Keller, Liam C. Palmer, Elad Deiss-Yehiely, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Songi Han, and Samuel I. Stupp. “Water Dynamics from the Surface to the Interior of a Supramolecular Nanostructure.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, no. 26 (July 5, 2017): 8915–21.

https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b02969

Water within and surrounding the structure of a biological system adopts context-specific dynamics that mediate virtually all of the events involved in the inner workings of a cell. These events range from protein folding and molecular recognition to the formation of hierarchical structures. Water dynamics are mediated by the chemistry and geometry of interfaces where water and biomolecules meet. Here we investigate experimentally and computationally the translational dynamics of vicinal water molecules within the volume of a supramolecular peptide nanofiber measuring 6.7 nm in diameter. Using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization relaxometry, we show that drastic differences exist in water motion within a distance of about one nanometer from the surface, with rapid diffusion in the hydrophobic interior and immobilized water on the nanofiber surface. These results demonstrate that water associated with materials designed at the nanoscale is not simply a solvent, but rather an integral part of their structure and potential functions.

Perspective of Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization for the study of soft materials #DNPNMR

Biller, Joshua R., Ryan Barnes, and Songi Han. “Perspective of Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for the Study of Soft Materials.” Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 33 (January 1, 2018): 72–85.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2018.02.007

Solution state Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) has been studied for 60years, but only in recent years has found applications of broad interest to biophysical sciences of hydration dynamics (HD-ODNP) around biomolecules and surfaces. In this review we describe state-of-the-art HD-ODNP methods and experiments, and identify technological and conceptual advances necessary to broadly disseminate HD-ODNP, as well as broaden its scope. Specifically, incomplete treatment of the saturation factor leads to the use of high microwave powers that induce temperature-dependent effects in HD-ODNP that can be detrimental to the stability and property of the sample and/or data interpretation, and thus must be corrected for. Furthermore, direct measurements of the electron spin relaxation times for the nitroxide radical-based spin labels used in HD-ODNP have recently caught up with the ambient solution conditions of relevance to HD-ODNP experiment, allowing us to envision an explicit treatment of the saturation factor. This would enable “single-shot” HD-ODNP at one or two concentrations and power levels, cutting down experimental times from the typical hours to minutes. With the development of a user-friendly and robust operation, the application of HD-ODNP experiments can be broadened for the study of biomolecules, biomaterials, soft polymer materials (i.e. hydrogels) and surfaces. In fact, any hydrated materials that can be viably spin labeled can yield information on local water dynamics and interfaces, and so guide the design of soft materials for medical and pharmaceutical uses. A brief introduction to spin-labeling, and exemplary applications to soft materials is discussed to serve as inspiration for future studies.

Hydration Dynamics of a Peripheral Membrane Protein #DNPNMR

Fisette, O., et al., Hydration Dynamics of a Peripheral Membrane Protein. J Am Chem Soc, 2016. 138(36): p. 11526-35.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548572

Water dynamics in the hydration shell of the peripheral membrane protein annexin B12 were studied using MD simulations and Overhauser DNP-enhanced NMR. We show that retardation of water motions near phospholipid bilayers is extended by the presence of a membrane-bound protein, up to around 10 A above that protein. Near the membrane surface, electrostatic interactions with the lipid head groups strongly slow down water dynamics, whereas protein-induced water retardation is weaker and dominates only at distances beyond 10 A from the membrane surface. The results can be understood from a simple model based on additive contributions from the membrane and the protein to the activation free energy barriers of water diffusion next to the biomolecular surfaces. Furthermore, analysis of the intermolecular vibrations of the water network reveals that retarded water motions near the membrane shift the vibrational modes to higher frequencies, which we used to identify an entropy gradient from the membrane surface toward the bulk water. Our results have implications for processes that take place at lipid membrane surfaces, including molecular recognition, binding, and protein-protein interactions.

Hydration Dynamics of a Peripheral Membrane Protein #DNPNMR

Fisette, O., et al., Hydration Dynamics of a Peripheral Membrane Protein. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016. 138(36): p. 11526-11535.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b07005

Water dynamics in the hydration shell of the peripheral membrane protein annexin B12 were studied using MD simulations and Overhauser DNP-enhanced NMR. We show that retardation of water motions near phospholipid bilayers is extended by the presence of a membrane-bound protein, up to around 10 Å above that protein. Near the membrane surface, electrostatic interactions with the lipid head groups strongly slow down water dynamics, whereas protein-induced water retardation is weaker and dominates only at distances beyond 10 Å from the membrane surface. The results can be understood from a simple model based on additive contributions from the membrane and the protein to the activation free energy barriers of water diffusion next to the biomolecular surfaces. Furthermore, analysis of the intermolecular vibrations of the water network reveals that retarded water motions near the membrane shift the vibrational modes to higher frequencies, which we used to identify an entropy gradient from the membrane surface toward the bulk water. Our results have implications for processes that take place at lipid membrane surfaces, including molecular recognition, binding, and protein–protein interactions.

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