Category Archives: flow

Prediction of flow effects in quantitative NMR measurements

Friebel, Anne, Thomas Specht, Erik von Harbou, Kerstin Münnemann, and Hans Hasse. “Prediction of Flow Effects in Quantitative NMR Measurements.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 312 (March 2020): 106683.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2020.106683

A method for the prediction of the magnetization in flow NMR experiments is presented, which can be applied to mixtures. It enables a quantitative evaluation of NMR spectra of flowing liquid samples even in cases in which the magnetization is limited by the flow. A transport model of the nuclei’s magnetization, which is based on the Bloch-equations, is introduced into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. This code predicts the velocity field and relative magnetization of different nuclei for any chosen flow cell geometry, fluid and flow rate. The prediction of relative magnetization is used to correct the observed reduction of signal intensity caused by incomplete premagnetization in fast flowing liquids. By means of the model, quantitative NMR measurements at high flow rates are possible. The method is predictive and enables calculating correction factors for any flow cell design and operating condition based on simple static T1 time measurements. This makes time-consuming calibration measurements for assessing the influence of flow effects obsolete, which otherwise would have to be carried out for each studied condition. The new method is especially interesting for flow measurements with compact medium field NMR spectrometers, which have small premagnetization volumes. In the present work, experiments with three different flow cells in a medium field NMR spectrometer were carried out. Acetonitrile, water, and mixtures of these components were used as model fluids. The experimental results for the magnetization were compared to the predictions from the CFD model and good agreement was observed.

Prediction of flow effects in quantitative NMR measurements #DNPNMR

Friebel, Anne, Thomas Specht, Erik von Harbou, Kerstin Münnemann, and Hans Hasse. “Prediction of Flow Effects in Quantitative NMR Measurements.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 312 (March 2020): 106683.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2020.106683.

A method for the prediction of the magnetization in flow NMR experiments is presented, which can be applied to mixtures. It enables a quantitative evaluation of NMR spectra of flowing liquid samples even in cases in which the magnetization is limited by the flow. A transport model of the nuclei’s magnetization, which is based on the Bloch-equations, is introduced into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. This code predicts the velocity field and relative magnetization of different nuclei for any chosen flow cell geometry, fluid and flow rate. The prediction of relative magnetization is used to correct the observed reduction of signal intensity caused by incomplete premagnetization in fast flowing liquids. By means of the model, quantitative NMR measurements at high flow rates are possible. The method is predictive and enables calculating correction factors for any flow cell design and operating condition based on simple static T1 time measurements. This makes time-consuming calibration measurements for assessing the influence of flow effects obsolete, which otherwise would have to be carried out for each studied condition. The new method is especially interesting for flow measurements with compact medium field NMR spectrometers, which have small premagnetization volumes. In the present work, experiments with three different flow cells in a medium field NMR spectrometer were carried out. Acetonitrile, water, and mixtures of these components were used as model fluids. The experimental results for the magnetization were compared to the predictions from the CFD model and good agreement was observed.

High-throughput continuous-flow system for SABRE hyperpolarization

Štěpánek, Petr, Clara Sanchez-Perez, Ville-Veikko Telkki, Vladimir V. Zhivonitko, and Anu M. Kantola. “High-Throughput Continuous-Flow System for SABRE Hyperpolarization.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 300 (March 2019): 8–17.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2019.01.003

Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) is a versatile method for hyperpolarizing small organic molecules that helps to overcome the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. It offers orders of magnitude enhanced signal strength, but the obtained nuclear polarization usually rapidly relaxes, requiring a quick transport of the sample to the spectrometer. Here we report a new design of a polarizing system, which can be used to prepare a continuous flow of SABREhyperpolarized sample with a considerable throughput of several mililiters per second and a rapid delivery into an NMR instrument. The polarizer performance under different conditions such as flow rate of the hydrogen or liquid sample is tested by measuring a series of NMR spectra and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of hyperpolarized pyridine in methanol. Results show a capability to continuously produce sample with dramatically enhanced signal over two orders of magnitude. The constant supply of hyperpolarized sample can be exploited, e.g., in experiments requiring multiple repetitions, such as 2D and 3D-NMR or MRI measurements, and also naturally allows measurements of flow maps, including systems with high flow rates, for which the level of achievable thermal polarization might not be usable any more. In addition, the experiments can be viably carried out in a non-deuterated solvent, due to the effective suppression of the thermal polarization by the fast sample flow. The presented system opens the possibilities for SABRE experiments requiring a long-term, stable and high level of nuclear polarization.

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