Category Archives: Electron Decoupling

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Electron Decoupling in Intact Human Cells and Cell Lysates #DNPNMR

Judge, Patrick T., Erika L. Sesti, Lauren E. Price, Brice J. Albert, Nicholas Alaniva, Edward P. Saliba, Thomas Halbritter, Snorri Th. Sigurdsson, George B. Kyei, and Alexander B. Barnes. “Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Electron Decoupling in Intact Human Cells and Cell Lysates.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, February 21, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b10494

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used to improve the inherently poor sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy by transferring spin polarization from electrons to nuclei. However, DNP radicals within the sample can have detrimental effects on nuclear spins close to the polarizing agent. Chirped microwave pulses and electron decoupling (eDEC) attenuate these effects in model systems, but this approach is yet to be applied to intact cells or cellular lysates. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time exceptionally fast 1H T1DNP times of just 200 and 300 ms at 90 and 6 K, respectively, using a newly synthesized methylated trityl radical within intact human cells. We further demonstrate that eDEC can also be applied to intact human cells and human and bacterial cell lysates. We investigate eDEC efficiency at different temperatures, with different solvents, and with two trityl radical derivatives. At 90 K, eDEC yields a 13C signal intensity increase of 8% in intact human cells and 10% in human and bacterial cell lysates. At 6 K, eDEC provides larger intensity increases of 15 and 39% in intact human cells and cell lysates, respectively. Combining the manipulation of electron spins with frequency-chirped pulses and sample temperatures approaching absolute zero is a promising avenue for executing rapid, high-sensitivity magic-angle spinning DNP in complex cellular environments.

Electron decoupling with cross polarization and dynamic nuclear polarization below 6 K #DNPNMR

Sesti, Erika L., Edward P. Saliba, Nicholas Alaniva, and Alexander B. Barnes. “Electron Decoupling with Cross Polarization and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization below 6 K.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 295 (October 2018): 1–5.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2018.07.016.

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can improve nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity by orders of magnitude. Polarizing agents containing unpaired electrons required for DNP can broaden nuclear resonances in the presence of appreciable hyperfine couplings. Here we present the first cross polarization experiments implemented with electron decoupling, which attenuates detrimental hyperfine couplings. We also demonstrate magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 6 K, producing unprecedented nuclear spin polarization in rotating solids. 13C correlation spectra were collected with MAS DNP below 6 K for the first time. Longitudinal magnetization recovery times with MAS DNP (T1DNP, 1H) of urea in a frozen glassy matrix below 6 K were measured for both the solid effect and the cross effect. Trityl radicals exhibit a T1DNP (1H) of 18.7 s and the T1DNP (1H) of samples doped with 20 mM AMUPol is only 1.3 s. MAS below 6 K with DNP and electron decoupling is an effective strategy to increase NMR signal-to-noise ratios per transient while retaining short recovery periods.

Electron decoupling with cross polarization and dynamic nuclear polarization below 6 K #DNPNMR

Sesti, Erika L., Edward P. Saliba, Nicholas Alaniva, and Alexander B. Barnes. “Electron Decoupling with Cross Polarization and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization below 6 K.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance 295 (October 2018): 1–5.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2018.07.016

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can improve nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensitivity by orders of magnitude. Polarizing agents containing unpaired electrons required for DNP can broaden nuclear resonances in the presence of appreciable hyperfine couplings. Here we present the first cross polarization experiments implemented with electron decoupling, which attenuates detrimental hyperfine couplings. We also demonstrate magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 6 K, producing unprecedented nuclear spin polarization in rotating solids. 13C correlation spectra were collected with MAS DNP below 6 K for the first time. Longitudinal magnetization recovery times with MAS DNP (T1DNP, 1H) of urea in a frozen glassy matrix below 6 K were measured for both the solid effect and the cross effect. Trityl radicals exhibit a T1DNP (1H) of 18.7 s and the T1DNP (1H) of samples doped with 20 mM AMUPol is only 1.3 s. MAS below 6 K with DNP and electron decoupling is an effective strategy to increase NMR signal-to-noise ratios per transient while retaining short recovery periods.

Saliba, Edward P., Erika L. Sesti, Nicholas Alaniva, and Alexander B. Barnes. “Pulsed Electron Decoupling and Strategies for Time Domain Dynamic Nuclear Polarization with Magic Angle Spinning.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, no. 18 (September 20, 2018): 5539–47.

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01695.

Magic angle spinning (MAS) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is widely used to increase nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal intensity. Frequency-chirped microwaves yield superior control of electron spins, and are expected to play a central role in the development of DNP MAS experiments. Time domain electron control with MAS has considerable promise to improve DNP performance at higher fields and temperatures. We have recently demonstrated that pulsed electron decoupling using frequency-chirped microwaves improves MAS DNP experiments by partially attenuating detrimental hyperfine interactions. The continued development of pulsed electron decoupling will enable a new suite of MAS DNP experiments which transfer polarization directly to observed spins. Time domain DNP transfers to nuclear spins in conjunction with pulsed electron decoupling is described as a viable avenue toward DNP-enhanced, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures from <6K to 320 K.

Electron Decoupling with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Rotating Solids #DNPNMR

Saliba, E.P., et al., Electron Decoupling with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Rotating Solids. J Am Chem Soc, 2017. 139(18): p. 6310-6313.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28429936

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can enhance NMR sensitivity by orders of magnitude by transferring spin polarization from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to NMR. However, paramagnetic DNP polarizing agents can have deleterious effects on NMR signals. Electron spin decoupling can mitigate these paramagnetic relaxation effects. We demonstrate electron decoupling experiments in conjunction with DNP and magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy. Following a DNP and spin diffusion period, the microwave irradiation frequency is quickly tuned on-resonance with electrons on the DNP polarizing agent. The electron decoupling performance shows a strong dependence on the microwave frequency and DNP polarization time. Microwave frequency sweeps through the EPR line shape are shown as a time domain strategy to significantly improve electron decoupling. For 13C spins on biomolecules frozen in a glassy matrix, electron decoupling reduces the line widths by 11% (47 Hz) and increases the intensity by 14%.

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