Barnes, A.B., et al., A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization. J. Magn. Reson., 2012. 221(0): p. 147-153.
We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with > 10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and > 35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a > 1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE5,2,q mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin.